The Zionist movement attracted then
young adepts who assisted in the sale of Shkolim, who campaigned
for the Keren Kayemet and studied diligently the Hebrew language. In the
long stretch of years up to the invasion of the Nazi hordes, the Zionist
movement in Zambrów was alive, what with all the periods of crisis and
stress that has come upon the land, as in the long years of the first
world war when the young men had all been mobilized, the communication
with the Jews in other lands totally ceased. The Zionist movement was, as
said, very much alive in the normal years in Zambrów, dedicating its
activities chiefly to the education of the youth in the all-embracing love
for the Jewish nation and its lofty aspirations, for the cherished Hebrew
language, for Eretz-Israel, -- in a world, bringing up a generation of
potential Haluzim in Israel.
2. Poalei Zion.The ideology of Poalei Zion did not fail either to find its adherents among the more radical youthful elements in Zambrów. The movement grew gradually, gaining its adepts among university students and ex-Yeshiva students. The leading figure in the movement was Yehoshua Domb (now living in Israel). Domb, writes Samuel Gutman, was a Hebrew teacher, a fine speaker, one of the people, a man of knowledge, an intellectual. Collaborating closely with him were the teacher Nathan Smolar, Pinie Boimkoler, Garfinkel, the tinsmith's son a veteran Poalei Zion, away since 1905. Sarnievitch, Zabludovsky, Bertche Sokol; the feminine active members: Shifra Lifshitz, Elke Guterman, Tillie Sarnievitch, Menuchke Sokol (Now living in Israel).
The "movement" limited itself chiefly
by educational activity, introducing courses of elementary studies,
founding a dramatic studio, etc.
3. Zeire-Zion. An important part in the social life of Zambrów played the sons of middle-class, or bourgeoisie, families, "with proletarian ideas", writes further Samuel Gutman. The leaders of this branch of Zionism were: Leibtchakh Golombek, Abraham Boimkoler, the brothers Itzchak and Haim Grodzinsky, David Rosental, Yankel Yabrovsky, the family GotIib, Shafran, Zukrovitch and others. Their adversaries of the "Bund" and the Poalei Zion reproached them for being "a proletarian Party without a single real workingman", until Providence came to their rescue, writes S. Gutman, and my own brother, Mordecai, a tailor, and Simcha Stern, a miller's son, who worked in his father's mill, joined the Zeire-Zion group. From this original group descended in later years the group "Hachalutz" that achieved practical results in its activity on behalf of Eretz-Israel. They may be credited with furthering immigration to Israel thus having delivered many Jewish souls from the imminent Nazi onslaught. Of the outstanding members of the group are: Zvi Zamir-Slovik, Benjamin Pshisusker, Fetziner, Michail Yabrovsky, Noah Zukrovitch and others.
4. Bund."In the "5th year", i.e. in the year 1905, the proletarian youth in Zambrów already differentiated into party-division of "Es-Es", "Es-Er", Bund, Poalei Zion and even an inkling of Communism and Anarchism (the very few adepts of the latter having strangely been just young men of a quiet and diffident nature).
It is difficult at this time to give an
account of the exact functions of the "Bund" in Zambrów in those years.
But the group is well remembered among Zambrówites by their idealistic
zeal in organizing strikes, in spreading revolutionary ideas among the
workingmen, in opening classes in elementary schooling for adults. After
the collapse of the Tzarist "Constitution", most of them immigrated to
America, and the "Bund" in Zambrów ceased then to exist.
The members of the last Bund group included Hershel Sendak, an ex-Yeshiva student, the husband of Faye Shiniak; the druggist Shklovin, later treacherously murdered by polish assassins, and others.
The Bund remained
steadfastly on guard, launching into a propaganda-fight against
clericalism, assimilation and seeing in Zionism in whatever form and
variety its archenemy. The Bund also founded a library and a quite
efficient dramatic studio.
THE "POALEI ZION" MOVEMENT
This organization was founded during the German occupation of Poland in 1917, approximately. At first it was a united party, later on it was divided into two dissenting factions: theRightists and Leftists. The latter got the upper hand. The Political leaders were: Yehoshua Domb, Nathan Smoliar, P. Baumkoller, Garfinkel, Bertshe Sokol, Zabludovsky, etc. They were very active among the local laborers. They organized evening classes and cared very much for educating the masses of people. They rented a fine hall for lectures and meetings: They also developed the local trade unions, and participated in the elections to the Parliament (Sejm), the Municipality, the Jewish Community Council etc.
The Socialist Youth Organization (called("Yugent") also developed at that time, spreading culture and enlightenment among the Jewish youth, educating them and improving their labor conditions. They even cultivated dramatic art, and organized theatrical performances from time to time.
About five-hundred youngsters belong to several youth organizations at Zambrów, among them one hundred and fifty were members of theHashomer Hatzair Movement. They used to meet every day, thus neglecting their studies at school, and suffering a lot from their Polish teachers. The Hashomer Hatzair cell was their home. They used to study there the geography of Eretz-Israel (Palestine), the history of Zionism and of the Labor Movement as well as various other socioeconomic problems. They used to dance Hora without cessation. Of supreme paramount importance was the special Summer Camp. Only after much persuasion they got the consent of the parents to go to the Summer Camp where they used to play, sing, dance, engage in sports, make excursions and tours, and prepare themselves for the future life in Eretz Israel. They also collected much money for the Keren Kayemet.
Their whole life was directed towards their future in the Jewish Homeland, thus ignoring the sad, troublesomeGalut life. Nobody imagined that the Galut will be annihilated so soon... next ►►