From Kishinev to Kristallnacht
Anti-Semitism in Pre-War Europe


The Czar's Shield:
My Beloved Jews

Thousands of books smolder in a huge bonfire as Germans give the Nazi salute during the wave of book burnings that spread throughout Germany. 1933. INP. (OWI)

--photo, above: courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD.
--photo, left: courtesy of the Philip and Mildred Lax Archive of B'nai B'rith.


From the distant past to the present day, the Jewish people have been unjustly singled out for punishment, both verbal and physical.

From the first pogrom to the Nazi's Final Solution, Jews have been made into scapegoats, subject to wonton acts of violence in the name of some misguided rumors or any number or irrational  beliefs and philosophies.

The Kishinev Massacre of 1903, in which forty-nine Jews were murdered and hundreds were wounded, aroused universal condemnation and protest... 



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